By Lior Goldberg and Shahar Papini and Michael Riabzev
Proof systems allow one party to prove to another party that a certain statement is true. Most existing practical proof systems require that the statement will be represented in terms of polynomial equations over a finite field. This makes the process of representing a statement that one wishes to prove or verify rather complicated, as this process requires a new set of equations for each statement. Various approaches to deal with this problem have been proposed.
We present Cairo, a practically efficient Turing-complete STARK-friendly CPU architecture. We describe a single set of polynomial equations for the statement that the execution of a program on this architecture is valid. Given a statement one wishes to prove, Cairo allows writing a program that describes that statement, instead of writing a set of polynomial equations.
Read the Cairo Whitepaper here.